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155 pols. 1.Over time, people are most likely to change their beliefs about which of the following?a. banking regulationsb. liberty and freedomc. abortiond. the death penalty2.Voters who carefully follow public affairs are known as which of the following?a. attentive electorateb. attentive publicc. active publicd. active electorate3.An individual?s propensity to perceive, interpret, or act toward a particular object in a particular way is a(n) ___________.a. ideologyb. beliefc. valued. attitude4.An election in which voters elect officeholders is which type of election?a. generalb. primaryc. presidentiald. midterm5.An election in which voters determine party nominees is which type of election?a. generalb caucusc. primaryd. midterm6.What is the term for the proportion of the voting-age public that votes?a. participatory segmentb. electoral segmentc. turnoutd. mobilization7.An informal and subjective affiliation with a political party that most people acquire over the course of their lifetime is known as what?a. party identificationb. voter identityc. electoral socializationd. platform identification8.In public opinion research, the _________ is the group of people whose preferences the researcher wants to measure.a. subject groupb. demographic groupc. sampled. universe9.Which American president once said, ?What I want is to get done what the people desire to be done, and the question for me is how to find that out exactly.?a. Andrew Jacksonb. Abraham Lincolnc. Theodore Rooseveltd. Bill Clinton10.Two major schools of political ideology dominate American politics. What are they?a. conservatism and liberalismb. conservatism and libertarianismc. liberalism and progressivismd. socialism and nationalism11.What percentage of Americans currently view themselves as extremely conservative?a. 2 to 4 percentb. 4 to 8 percentc. 8 to 12 percentd. 12 to 16 percent12.Typically, how many people attempt to influence how another person votes?a. less than 1 percentb. fewer than one in tenc. about 10 percentd. fewer than one in four13.How are intensity of public opinion and salience related?a. They are often correlated on the same issue.b. They are essentially the same.c. As intensity increases, salience goes down.d. Intensity is a precondition for salience.14.When is voter turnout lowest?a. municipal primariesb. midterm primary electionsc. midterm general electionsd. special elections15.Issues that people believe are important to them are __________.a. intenseb. core valuesc. salientd. ideological issues16.Which of the following is the most influential factor when voters develop the political attitudes they take into elections?a. familyb. schoolc. mass mediad. self-reflection17.Voters who hold the belief that government can bring about justice and equality of opportunity subscribe to what political ideology?a. liberalismb. conservatismc. libertarianismd. socialism18.Voters who hold beliefs in private property rights and free enterprise, and who want to enhance individual liberty by keeping government small, subscribe to what political ideology?a. liberalismb. conservatismc. communismd. fascism19.Social conservatives differ from traditional conservatives in that they support which of the following?a. social controlsb. economic controlsc. deregulationd. military expenditures20.Why do conservatives favor cutting taxes for the wealthy?a. They believe the wealthy will spend and invest more money, benefiting the economy.b. They believe the wealthy will contribute more to charity, benefiting people in need.ÿc. They believe that all taxes should be eliminated.d. They believe the wealthy will contribute more to political campaigns, thus helping to elect conservatives.21.Which state was the first to grant women?s suffrage?a. Pennsylvaniab. Wyomingc. Texasd. Rhode Island22.Which U.S. constitutional amendment granted women the right to vote on the national level?a. Sixthc. Twelfthd. Nineteenthe. Twenty-Third23.Congress granted citizenship and voting rights to which group in 1924?a. ex-Confederate soldiersb. Japanese immigrantsc. Native Americansd. railroad workers24.Voting was extended to those 18 years of age or older through which constitutional amendment?a. Ninthb. Twenty-Sixthc. Twenty-Firstd. Fifteenth25.Federal law prevents a state from closing voter registration more than __________ before a federal election.a. 15 daysb. 30 daysc. 2 monthsd. 6 months26.Since 1952, there have been an equal number of Democratic and Republican presidents. Beyond party identification, the main factor that accounts for this is __________.a. candidate appealb. electoral appealc. platform appeald. party appeal27.People tend to belong to the same political party as __________.a. their parentsb. their peersc. their neighborsd. their close friends28.In terms of their ideology, most people in the United States are __________.a. slightly liberalb. slightly conservativec. moderated. non-ideological29.What is the key to ensuring that a relatively small number of people can accurately represent the opinions of a larger population?a. random samplingb. indexingc. question formatd. response rate30.What factor is associated with fluctuations in party identification?a. involvement in foreign warsb. political corruptionc. congressional gridlockd. economic conditions31.Candidate appeal focuses on which of the following questions?a. What interest groups have endorsed the candidate?b. Does the candidate have religious or spiritual commitments?c. What is the candidate?s position on health care policy?d. What party does the candidate belong to?32.There is considerable disagreement about how to interpret low voter turnout. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, what is the principal reason that people do not vote?a. registration problemsb. too busyc. political ideologyd. no interest33.Of the following factors, which is usually correlated with a propensity to vote?a. ambitionb. ethical orientationc. genderd. geography34.Libertarians support which of the following?a. repealing laws regulating abortionb. instituting a public jobs programc. creating programs to protect children from drugsd. taxing the wealthy more heavily35.Political scientists have identified three main elements of the voting choice. What are they?a. candidate appeal, issues, and party identificationb. candidate appeal, issues, and intensityc. issues, intensity, and intelligenced. issues, party identification, and social class36.How do elections in America compare with those in other democracies of the world?a. Americans vote more frequently than citizens in other democracies of the world.b. Americans vote less frequently than citizens in other democracies of the world.c. Americans vote more frequently, but for fewer offices, than citizens in other democracies of the world.d. Americans vote more frequently and for more offices than citizens in other democracies of the world.37.The 2010 elections, where the GOP picked up congressional seats, was which type of election?ÿa. presidentialb. representativec. primaryd. midterm38.Both political parties hope to register and mobilize __________, who comprise the largest minority group in the United States.a. African Americansb. Hispanicsc. Arab Americansd. Asian Americans39.As a result of the Voting Rights Act and the ban on the poll tax, __________.a. there was a dramatic expansion of registration and voting by African Americansb. the Republican Party became stronger in the Southc. the Democratic Party became stronger in the Southd. registration increased, but overall voter turnout decreased40.What impact has the ?Motor Voter? law had?ÿa. It has had no impact on voter registration or voting.b. It has led to more new voters registering, most of whom claim to be Independents.c. It has led to more new voters registering, most of whom claim to Democrats.d. It has increased voter turnout by approximately 10 percent.41.Enacted in 2002, the __________ established accessibility standards for voting systems in the United States.a. Americans with Disabilities Actb. Voting Rights Actc. Help America Vote Actd. Electoral Integrity Act42.The lowest rate of voter turnout is among __________.a. Independent-leaning Democratsb. Pure Independentsÿc. Independent-leaning Republicansÿd. Libertariansÿ43.Jennifer grows up in a politically active household, where both her parents vote, contribute to campaigns, listen to nightly news broadcasts, and read weekly news magazines. They involve Jennifer in their discussions of the political events of the day, often commenting about the social and economic policies that they favor. In time, Jennifer learns that her parents favor government bailouts of troubled national industries and that government should act to improve public education. As she matures, she adopts the political party affiliation of her parents. What process has Jennifer undergone?a. political assimilationb. political definitionc. political identificationd. political socializationÿ44.The Pew Research Center publishes survey data that indicate that 54 percent of college students plan to vote in the next presidential election. If the margin of error is 3 percent, what should the candidates expect the lowest turnout rate among college students to be?a. 57 percentb. 54 percentc. 51 percentÿd. less than 51 percent45.Gabriel is a white middle-class father of two, who works as a librarian in the public library system of a large city in the American West. He is 57 years old. Although Gabriel is generally inclined to support Democratic candidates whose policies provide an economic safety net for those hardest hit by recessions, he will occasionally vote Republican or as an Independent. He is especially concerned about equal access to health care and is inclined to support more aggressive measures to protect the environment from careless polluters. In terms of political ideology, how is Gabriel likely to self-classify himself?a. conservativeb. liberalc. extremely liberald. non-ideological46.When Representative Barbara M. Calhoun left office in the middle of her fourth term, she did so at the behest of the president, who appointed her to be U.S. ambassador to Chile. As soon as she had accepted the post, she informed state officials in Georgia of her plans. What did they immediately organize to fill her vacant seat?a. a midterm electionb. a primary electionc. a replacement electiond. a special election47.Why are latent opinions important?a. These opinions help to explain low rates of political participation in the United States.b. These opinions are highly salient and thus influence people?s political attitudes and behaviors.ÿc. These opinions are formed early in life and comprise people?s core values.d. Politicians can make these opinions salient to voters and can use them to build public support for their policies.ÿ48.Compared to liberals, conservatives take a more __________ view of human nature.a. optimisticb. pessimisticc. holisticd. biased49.The __________ of public opinion means the proportion of the population that holds a particular view.a. distributionb. intensityc. leveld. margin50.The statements of a Libertarian voter that the government should not regulate social choices of adults and that the free market is a better supplier of goods and services than a centralized government are representative of his or her what?a. intensityb. latencyc. ideologyd. salience51.How does contemporary liberalism differ from classical liberalism?a. Contemporary liberals place greater emphasis on individualism.b. Unlike classical liberals, contemporary liberals believe that government intervention in the economy is necessary.c. Contemporary liberals focus more on morality and lifestyle.d. Unlike classical liberals, contemporary liberals favor limited government involvement in foreign affairs.ÿ52.A country that has complete state ownership of property, no relevant property rights, and does not allow for political opposition or voter choice has which type of political system?a. socialistb. fascistc. communistd. oligarchy53.Which of the following is an advantage of open-ended questions in public opinion polls?a. They allow respondents to express their views more clearly.b. They are easier to interpret and analyze than other types of questions.c. They reduce the margin of error in public opinion polls.d. They allow survey researchers to increase their sample sizes.54.Protest is a form of political participation, including Rosa Parks?s civil disobedience, Tea Party demonstrations, and Occupy Wall Street marches. In extreme cases, people may feel so strongly about an issue that they would rather fight than accept the verdict of an election. The most extreme example from American history of voters rejecting the outcome of an election is which of the following?a. Jim Crow lawsb. the civil rights movementc. Vietnam protestsd. the American Civil War55.Of the following, which is more closely associated with social capital?a. attitudesb. awarenessÿc. interestsd. networks56.Which type of survey question is best formulated to address concerns about errors in public opinion polling resulting from difficulty in measuring intensity?a. yes-or-no questionsb. approve-or-disapprove questionsc. scale questionsd. close-ended questions57.In what way do libertarians and conservatives differ?a. Unlike conservatives, libertarians favor government regulation of the financial markets.b. Unlike conservatives, libertarians oppose restrictions on illicit drugs.c. Unlike libertarians, conservatives favor deregulation.d. Unlike libertarians, conservatives cherish individual liberties.58.Why are some people opposed to vote-by-mail?a. They believe that vote-by-mail alters the turnout in presidential general elections.b. They believe that vote-by-mail is subject to potential fraud.c. They believe that Independents unfairly benefit from the practice of voting by mail.d. They believe that vote-by-mail makes it easier for states to purge voters from the rolls.59.Race and ethnic background are linked with different levels of voting, largely because they correlate with what third factor?a. educationb. political ideologyc. salienced. voter awareness60.Although as a group, African Americans vote at lower rates than white Americans, when are African Americans likely to vote at the same rate as Caucasians?a. when they are part of two-earner familiesb. when their income levels mirror those of white Americansc. when they have college degreesd. when they live in geographic zones other than the Deep Southp True-False Questions61.Social conservatives focus less on economics and more on morality and lifestyle.62.Socialism is the belief that the state owns property in common for all people and a single political party that represents the working classes controls the government.63.The National Voter Registration Act allows people to register to vote while applying for or renewing a driver?s license.64.Random sampling is a technique that can eliminate the margin of error in public opinion polls.65.As people get older, they are less likely to vote.66.Most political scientists agree that issues, though important, have less influence on how people vote than does party identification or candidate appeal.67.Every state has some kind of voter registration rules.68.Oregon is the only state to have switched to vote-by-mail as its means to conduct elections and has suffered lower voter turnout because of it.69.Political socialization is a process that continues throughout our lives.70.When a substantial percentage of a sample selected to give opinions on an issue agrees on that issue, researchers say that there is a polarization of opinion.71.In a state where the level of education is higher than the national average, voter turnout will be lower than the national average.72.Retrospective voting is more common than prospective voting.73.Intensity of public opinion refers to the degree to which people feel strongly about their opinions.74.As a retrospective issue voter, you are likely to vote against incumbents during a bad economy.ÿFill-in-the-Blank Questions75.When people come together, listen to each other, exchange ideas, and learn to appreciate each other?s differences, they are engaging in __________.76.The Twenty-Fourth Amendment prohibited the use of ____________ in federal elections.77.The electoral process during which voters replace members of the House of Representatives who have died or left office is called a(n) _______________.78.A common element of political socialization in most cultures is __________, a consciousness of the nation-state and of belonging to it.79.__________ are issues that motivate particular segments of the electorate to vote and on which the opposing candidate or party is less popular.80.In a recent Pew Research Center Global Attitudes Survey, corruption was seen as a bigger problem for most people in India, Nigeria, Japan, and Mexico than in __________, which allows neither the free expression of public opinion nor free elections.81.Voters who cast their ballots in the 2014 election did not vote for a president and therefore voted in a(n) _____________ election.82.As a group, African Americans vote ___________ than Caucasians, although this is beginning to change.83.After passage of the Twenty-Sixth Amendment, which increased the number of eligible voters by lowering the voting age to18, voter turnout between 1968 and 1972 ___________.84.Because public opinion can change from day to day and even from hour to hour, polls are really only __________ of opinion at a particular point in time.85.Conservatives who focus less on economics and more on morality and lifestyle are known as __________.86.__________ believe that people are the architects of their own success or failure.87.The United States compares favorably with other nations in political interest and awareness, but for a variety of institutional and political reasons, about ____________ percent of all eligible citizens fail to vote.88.The fact that today?s Americans are not well informed about politics is consistent with the conclusions of scholars who have found that users of _________ ?are no more knowledgeable about politics (in general and about the field of presidential candidates) than are their counterparts and, in fact, seem to be less so.?8Campaigns and ElectionsMultiple-Choice Questions1.Elections for members of Congress occur __________.a. on the second Tuesday in Novemberb. every two years in odd-numbered yearsc. on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November of even-numbered yearsd. in the first week of November in odd-numbered years2.The term of office for senators is __________.a. 2 yearsb. 4 yearsc. 6 yearsd. 8 years3.Which candidate in 2000 lost the Electoral College vote and did not become president?a. Al Goreb. George H. W. Bushc. Bill Clintond. John McCain4.California has 53 seats in the House of Representatives. How many Electoral College votes does it have?a. 12b. 25c. 53d. 555.Women in what two states were allowed to vote well before women throughout the country were granted the right to vote?a. Colorado and New Yorkb. New Jersey and Wyomingc. Pennsylvania and Virginiad. Massachusetts and Missouri6.Barack Obama?s successful campaigns for president in 2008 and 2012 resulted in __________ in both elections.a. a gain of House seats for Republicansÿb. a gain of seats in the House and a loss of seats in the Senate for Democratsÿc. a loss of House seats and a gain of Senate seats for Republicansÿd. a gain of both House and Senate seats for Democratsÿ7.How often do candidates for House seats have to campaign?a. every yearb. every 2 yearsc. every 4 yearsd. every 6 years8.Incumbent senators are able to outspend their challengers by what ratio?a. 2:1b. 3:1c. 5:1d. 10:19.What states did the Democratic National Committee attempt to punish in 2008 for moving their primaries to January?a. California and Maineb. Ohio and Georgiac. Washington and South Carolinad. Florida and Michigan10.Which candidate in 1964 gave an acceptance speech that included the words, ?Extremism in the defense of liberty is no vice??a. Lyndon Johnsonb. John Kennedyc. Richard Nixond. Barry Goldwater11.Which constitutional amendment requires presidential electors to vote for one person for president and another for vice president?a. the Twelfthb. the Fifteenthc. the Nineteenthd. the Twenty-Second12.What organization was created in 1974 to administer new campaign reform laws?a. U.S. Electoral Commission (USEC)b. Federal Finance Commission (FFC)c. Federal Election Commission (FEC)d. Electoral Finance Commission (EFC)13.The Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act is also known as the __________.a. McCain-Kerry billb. Palin-Biden Actc. McCain-Feingold billd. Reid-Boehner bill14.The Supreme Court decision in which case rejected the longstanding ban on unions and corporations using their general funds on ads about the election or defeat of a candidate?a. Citizens United v. FECb. McConnell v. FECc. McCain v. Buckleyd. Buckley v. Valeo15.Reformers who want more aggressive reforms than those found in BCRA are most eager to control what kinds of groups?a. 527sb. PACsc. Democratic action groupsd. Super PACs16.Some critics of state presidential primaries argue in favor of __________.a. a national presidential runoff raceb. a national presidential primaryc. a regional caucusd. eliminating primaries altogether17.Competition in congressional elections is most likely when __________.a. both candidates have adequate fundingÿb. Super PACS spend money on campaign advertisingc. both candidates accept federal matching fundsd. electoral districts have been subject to partisan gerrymandering18.In most parliamentary democracies, the party in power calls elections __________.a. at a time of the party?s choosingb. every five years on averagec. at fixed intervals of two yearsd. only when the government receives a no-confidence vote19.Term limits for members of the U.S. Congress can be imposed only by __________.a. state legislaturesb. congressional legislationc. a public referendumd. constitutional amendment20.The constitutional amendment limiting presidents to two terms was adopted in __________.a. 1791b. 1865c. 1920d. 195121.How many times has the House of Representatives determined the outcome of a presidential election?a. 0b. 2c. 5d. 1022.In the early years of the United States, suffrage was a right for __________.a. white male property owners over 21b. all white malesc. all property ownersd. all adults over 2123.Which of the following was a source of controversy in the 2012 and 2014 elections?a. the move by some states to allow noncitizens to voteb. the move by some states to ban advertising funded by Super PACsc. the move in some states to reduce the number of early voting daysd. the move in some states to eliminate primaries24.According to political scientist Gary Jacobson, coattail effects are __________.a. large and unusualb. modest and predictablec. erratic and modestd. large and predictableÿ25.When running for the House of Representatives, a candidate?s main hurdle is gaining __________.a. ballot accessb. coalition supportc. visibilityÿd. support from his or her family26.The tendency in elections to focus on the personal attributes of a candidate, such as his or her strengths, weaknesses, background, experience, and visibility, is known as __________.a. candidate appealb. the incumbency advantagec. party platformsd. issue-oriented voting27.An election with no incumbent running is called __________.a. a toss-upb. party pollingc. an open seatd. a referendum28.Following the 1972 election, an effort was made to give more influence in the selection of the presidential candidate to party leaders and elected officials, leading to the creation of __________.a. Super PACsb. superdelegatesc. strong electorsd. primary delegates29.To win the general election, presidential candidates have to win support from __________ who often do not vote in primaries.a. intensely conservative votersb. committedly liberal votersc. moderate and pragmatic votersd. Evangelical Christians30.Which of the following probably has the MOST bearing on who wins a presidentialelection?a. the current state of the economyb. the state of foreign affairsc. which candidate has aired the most adsd. which candidate is backed by unions31.What does it mean for the party leadership to ?clear the field? in campaigns?a. to the purge the voter rolls of people who are ineligible to voteb. to discourage some candidates from running while endorsing a preferred candidatec. to discourage minor parties from running candidates in the general electiond. to discourage the opposing campaign from running negative ads32.Ads that typically attack a candidate but allow the sponsor to avoid disclosure and contribution limitations because the ads do not use electioneering language such as ?vote for? or ?vote against? are classified as __________.a. soft moneyb. hard moneyc. issue advocacyd. independent expenditures33.Money spent by individuals or groups who are not associated with candidates to elect or defeat candidates for office is known as __________.a. self-financingb. outside interventionc. independent expendituresd. soft money34.What did all serious contenders for president in 2012 have in common?a. They all came out in opposition to Super PACs.b. They all appealed to moderate voters during the primary campaigns.c. They all announced their candidacies before the end of 2010.d. They all turned down federal matching funds.35.Which state has a system in which the presidential candidate who carries each congressional district gets that electoral vote?a. Maineb. New Jerseyc. Alaskad. California36.Early in the nation?s history, presidential candidates were selected by __________.ÿa. electors chosen by the party in powerb. political bossesc. party caucusesd. governors of individual states37.In which of the following situations would an election MOST likely be decided by the House of Representatives?a. during a time of warb. when there are three or more strong candidates runningc. when Democrats control the House but Republicans control the Senated. when the same party controls both Congress and the White House38.If you were an official in the Democratic Party in a state that typically goes Republican, you might be in favor of changing the election system to __________.a. winner-take-allb. single-member representationc. straight electiond. proportional representation39.One of the reasons it is a challenge to count votes in the United States is that__________.a. computer technology is not sophisticated enough to handle the volume of votes on election dayb. poll workers are often not trained well enoughc. the technology used in Ohio may not be the same as the technology in New Yorkd. every state votes on a different day40.Which of the following is a likely consequence of proportional representation systems?a. They lead to greater stability in government.b. They encourage greater turnout among voters who support minor parties.c. They lead to lower overall voter turnout.d. They lead to lower overall spending on campaigns.41.In a midterm election year, the economy is doing very well. How would you expect the president?s party to do?a. The president?s party is likely to lose a number of seats in the House.b. If the president?s popularity remains the same, his or her party will likely lose seats in the House.c. The president?s party will neither gain nor lose seats in the House.d. If the president?s popularity remains the same, his or her party will likely gain seats in the House.42.If you were a campaign manager and determined that your party was experiencing a backlash against immigration policies, what would be your strategy?a. Suggest to your candidate that she speak to party leaders about moderating their stance.b. Advise your candidate to distance herself from the party line to avoid the national tide.c. Run a series of attack ads on the opponents of your party?s immigration policies.d. Go along with the national tide as a loyal party member.43.Which of the following is a major criticism of Super PACs?a. It is questionable whether they are truly independent of candidates.b. They have little influence on elections, compared to other types of PACs and interest groups.c. They are overwhelmingly biased in favor of Democrats.d. They have little knowledge of the electoral process.44.The fact that some states have moved their primaries earlier in the election year suggests that __________.a. they don?t believe that caucuses should have as much impact as primariesb. they want to have a real impact on the selection of the candidatec. they have no fear of the Democratic or Republican National Committeed. all primaries should take place on the same day45.One strategy you could use as a candidate during the primaries to manage media expectations would be to __________.a. claim you will probably not do very well so that your actual results look ?better than expected?b. claim that you will probably do very well so that your actual results will not get much attentionc. enlist the media in critiquing your opponents? positionsd. avoid as much media attention as possible46.If you?d attended the 2008 Democratic Convention as a delegate, you would have found that women made up approximately what percentage of your fellow delegates?a. 10 percentb. 20 percentc. 40 percentd. 60 percent47.If your candidate has broad support and has no trouble raising money, you would most likely advise him to __________.a. accept federal matching funds despite the spending limitations they imposeb. accept state matching funds and spending limitationsc. bypass federal matching funds because of the spending limitations they imposed. accept matching funds from states where he is likely to do well48.Which of the following is a key difference between House and Senate races?a. Overall spending on Senate races surpasses overall spending on House races.b. Super PACs are more involved in House races than in Senate races.c. House elections are more seriously contested than Senate elections.d. Senate elections are more seriously contested than House elections.49.The Framers of the U.S. Constitution created the Electoral College because they __________.a. wanted a proportional representation system for the presidencyb. desired to make it impossible for candidates from large states to become presidentc. wanted to encourage states to use multimember districts for their legislaturesd. did not trust the choice of president to a direct vote of the people50.The project ?Americans Elect,? launched in 2012, would best be described as __________.ÿa. an successful effort to increase voter turnoutb. a failed experiment in online politicsc. an example of the power of money in electionsd. a well-intentioned, but unsuccessful effort to defeat incumbent politiciansÿ51.Which of the following could have a serious impact on whether a close presidential election could actually be decided on Election Day?a. absentee votingb. the number of candidates on a ballotc. efforts to ensure that all counties in a state use the same voting technologyd. voter registration laws52.Which of the following would be a likely disadvantage of regional primaries in the nomination of presidential candidates?a. They would retain the current emphasis on money and media.b. They would create an even more complicated nominating process.c. They would put small states at a significant disadvantage in the nominating process.d. They would likely lead to lower voter turnout in the primaries.53.A ?permanent Congress? is a result of __________.a. advantages held by incumbentsb. coattail effectsc. high levels of competition in House electionsd. the Supreme Court?s ruling in Pelosi v. Constituents54.The Pew Global Attitudes survey asked people how they feel about women and men serving as political leaders. Which of the following was a major finding of this research?a. People in Britain believe that men and women make equally good leaders and favor women over men.b. People in the United States do not believe that men and women make equally good leaders.c. People in Nigeria believe that men make better leaders than women do.d. People in Japan believe that women make better leaders than men do.55.To win their parties? nominations, presidential candidates __________.a. must win the Iowa caucusb. must raise more money than any of their opponentsc. typically have to appeal to the more ideologically intense individuals in their partiesd. try to adopt policy platforms most appealing to moderate, independent voters56.If no candidate gets a majority of the Electoral College vote for vice president, __________.a. the candidate wit

155 pols


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