Exam. I HAVE A comprehensive exam in public policy and administration, I would not know exactly what questions coming up on the exam but I will send u the power point classes which includes five courses and the discussion questions from the five courses. What u have to do is read the courses questions and fox Mir on the case study ( flint and how it is related with each course question. Make a simple and general assignment about each course to fits with any questions would come on the exam. Be professional but one the same way easy words and general information about the case study from the power point and the sourcesÿuse easy word ,general answer to avoid any other urgent question from her the case study about Flint Michigan.ÿeach Question 2 pages use 10 referenceÿ next each sentence from what i attached only, use also cooper model you will find it in poerpoient that i attaced and use it as reference(copper, 2017). teacher use turn in noÿ or same student work.need definittion for each in the beginning of the essa next that useÿreference from wher you get theÿdefinittion.use this important point for ÿeach essay:Research Methods- ÿQuantitative: measured in numbersQualitative: measured as a category or nonnumeric unit.- ÿReliability: arriving at the same results ? or at least very similar results ? every time I re-conduct the studyValidity: likely to happen and have not just appeared by chance- ÿLikert scale measure:ÿsurvey question that seek answers on a point scale- ÿDependent variable: depends on the influence of the independent variableÿIndependent variable: responsible for causing the changes in the outcomeControl variable: variables that are not under study but might affect thedependent variable- ÿClassis Research Designhas pretest and posttest control groups, simple, straight forward, groupsare randomly selected.- ÿSampling designs:1 Simple Random Sampling ? randomly chosen and each member has exactly an equal probability of being selected for the sample.2 Cluster Sampling ? the population is divided into groups, then a random sample of the clusters in selected.- ÿInductive Approach:ÿno hypothesis- ÿDeductive Approach:ÿhypothesis needs to be provesEthics- ÿEthics: a set of normative standards that determines what is fair, right,wrong, and just.- ÿUnethical behaviorÿis morally unaccepted but does not break any lawIllegal behaviorÿis against the law and is punishable- ÿSubjective & Objective ResponsibilitySubjective = internal code, personal values, expression of MY beliefs. Objective = expectations imposed from the outside: responsible to superiors, country and citizens. Like Human Rights.- ÿExternal and Internal controlsExternal controls involve things such as ethical legislation, laws and codes of conduct. An example is a law outlawing stealing money.Internal controls involve morals, professional standards and ethics (individual values, principals, standards, morals). An example is a personal belief that stealing money is bad.- ÿEthical theoriesCoopers model: (The Decision Making Model)Cooper?s decision-making model provides a technique to move from defining a problem to designing a course of action to resolve the issue.1ÿDescribing the situationÿ-2ÿDefining the ethical issueÿ-3ÿOptions and courses of Action -4ÿProjecting out probable consequences ?5ÿWhich option will I choose -6ÿResolution -Law-ÿFormal rulemakingLike a trial, presentation of evidence, adversarial proceedings, testimony and cross-examination, recommended rule by hearing officer, opportunity for appeal, final rule published in Federal Register.Informal rulemakingÿ- less regulated form of regulation because it provides flexibility, policy criteria, rationality, participation, efficiency and enforceability.1- The agency should provide notice of the proposed rulemaking in the federal register for the public to see.2- Give the public the opportunity to comment on the proposed rule to share their concerns or questions about the rule.3- The agency should issue the final rule (final publication) with indicating that the rule will not take effect until the waiting period of minimum 30 days after the publication in the federal register.APA (Administrative Procedure Act)ÿ1946 – Congress became concerned with growth in governmental policy and created APA.? Promotes rationality & lawfulness in agency decision-making? Governs the way agencies propose and establish regulations? Considered the ?bill of rights? for citizens whose actions are regulated by agencies. ? Defines the scope of judicial review.Implementation-ÿMoore?s strategic triangle and its elementsIt is a great tool to be used by the public managers when thinking of coming up with new policies that matters to the public, failure to meet the three elements of the strategic triangle will make the success of the policy very difficult and maybe impossible.Example to apply the strategic triangle: SAFER AIR Act of 2010Sen. Robert Bennett proposed and wrote this Act that involves the Department of Homeland Security (HSD) to ensure advanced imaging devices installed at the airports and metro stations to scan passengers before they get to the airplane or the train and to inspect them for any possible chance to carry explosive weapons. So the main goal is the security and safety of the public.1- ÿThe first element of the strategic triangle is the Public Value, looking to the reason and proposes of this act we will find it is really concerned about the public safety, but on the other hand people did not like such advanced technology that could provide very clear image for the human body naked. This is considered to be violation to the privacy right even though the goal behind is to save people lives. This led to a conflict between two public values. This Act died at the end and was sent back for committee.2- ÿThe Authorizing Environment. SAFER AIR Act didn?t have a good political support and that is another reason for it to die at an early stage as the Congress sent it back for a committee with a list of comments saying No.3- ÿThe Operational Capability or Sustainability, from what I have seen from this Act I think it is doable but it will cost a lot ofÿmoneyÿto come up advanced devices and technology that could do what it should do to scan the passengers and also at the same time ensure high level ofÿprivacyÿand ensure the images taken by these devices are not transferred or accessed by anyone other than the person operating the scanning device.Public TheoryWilson? Administration is strictly outside of the territory of politics? Elected officials make public policy and administrators carry out this policy.Max Weber (Principles of Bureaucracy)? Control is from top to bottom ? hierarchy and clear chain of command, no authority is given without referring to the top.? Based on a set of rules and regulations coming from public law, they are the final word.? Assigning accountability is clear, if someone makes an error it would be clear who made the mistake to hold him or her accountable.? Public administrators cannot have an opinion or take a stand. Their role is to only execute the orders passed down from authorities.? Expertise are seeked to fill positions available.? Focus is on management and procedures, not efficiency or outcome.? Impersonal and removed from public (think of DMV)New Public Management- ÿA reaction to bureaucracy, more flexible and adaptable to newcomplicated social situations like instant communication andinformation.- ÿCustomer driven, more like a private business.- ÿDepends on the outputs and performance of an organization.- ÿManagers are accountable and responsible for their decisions so theymust be flexible to react to situations.- ÿThe public?s participation is allowed and appreciated in the decisionmaking process.1-Ethics Questionÿ : ÿÿÿYou are employed by the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality. Your job is to make sure the water in the state of Michigan is safe to drink for the citizens. Recently the people in the city of Flint have been complaining of poor water. They claim that their water smells like sulfur and chlorine and that in many cases the water from the tap is the color of rust. It also is being suggested that the water is causing health problems. A little research has yielded up the fact that the city managers switched the water source from Lake Huron to water from the river that runs through town. This decision was not your decision to make but now you must decide on a course of action. Others in your department have chosen to not require the Flint water plant to utilize up-to-date corrosion control, but they have told the Environmental Protection Agency that they were doing so.ÿ They claim the town is so small it will not matter at all.ÿ Other employees have taken a few samples of water to check it but you are afraid some of the water samples that tested high for lead have been thrown out, but you cannot prove this.ÿ What steps should you take immediately and why?2-Public Administration Theoryÿ :take it general answer;ÿMax Weber defined bureaucracy by six characteristics. Evaluate the bureaucratic environment in Flint from the point of view of Weber.Discuss the following:Hierarchy of CommandRules and Regulation of managementDivision of labor and work specialization by departmentThe nature of impersonal relationships in the various agencies.The competence of the employees enrolled in the case.Comment on the formal rules, regulations, procedures, and decisions by the various organizations and agencies.Discuss Theory X and Theory Y with respect to Flint, Michigan.Which of the two theories is more plausible and why given the information.Is Flint, Michigan a ?Wicked Problem? according to Rittel & Webber?What safeguards would you propose to prevent or minimize the inefficiencies or failures of bureaucracy? (Note: you may use the definitions of Woodrow Wilson, Max Weber or any other major theorist of Public Administration.)3-law; Review the Safe Drinking Water Act and its implications in the Flint Michigan water crisis. Are there any rules that were broken and by whom?ÿDiscuss any potential impact of the Regulatory Flexibility Act on the water crisis.What formal or informal rules are needed to prevent this type of crisis?4-ÿ Implementation Questionsÿ :Use the Eightfold Path and provide an analysis of the Flint, Michigan water pollution issue. You may use all previous articles as sources of information.5-Research Methods Qustion:We will examine the following and you will write up the answer as an Question #5 for this course:The Flint Water System was found to be toxic so the main water source reverted to the Detroit system, not the Flint River.ÿ After the switch, the water needed to be retested.ÿ Read the following and determine:What is the research question?What are the variables?What is the research design?What was the sampling process?How was the data collected?How was the data analyzed?Why or why not was this effective? What did the results show?ATTACHMENT HERE: use POWERPENT as will dont use any attachment from out .Fivethirtyeight.comÿWhat went wrong in Flint? Blood Lead Levels in Children Associated with the Flint Drinking Water Crisis helped uncover a public health crisis in Flint, but learned there are costs to doing good science Forward After Flint and Formal Rulemaking + Bureaucracy article — Bureaucrcy over Flint Drinking Water Act and Water Safely LawOrigins of the EPA Act of the EPA Public Value Record Safe Drinking Water Act assessment of Safe Drinking Water Act Post – Anti-Flint about Flint from Virginia Techhttp://flintwaterstudy.orgPlumbing Research Water Research allows lawsuit to stand Residents Must Begin Paying for Water



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