steps. in 3 pages , need 10 resources for each next to sentences.ÿ just from what i attached, ÿ1-Implementation :Use the Eightfold Path and provide an analysis of the Flint, Michigan water pollution issue. You may use all previous articles as sources of information.this is the important key points:Implementation – Moore?s strategic triangle and its elementsIt is a great tool to be used by the public managers when thinking of coming up with new policies that matters to the public, failure to meet the three elements of the strategic triangle will make the success of the policy very difficult and maybe impossible.Example to apply the strategic triangle: SAFER AIR Act of 2010Sen. Robert Bennett proposed and wrote this Act that involves the Department of Homeland Security (HSD) to ensure advanced imaging devices installed at the airports and metro stations to scan passengers before they get to the airplane or the train and to inspect them for any possible chance to carry explosive weapons. So the main goal is the security and safety of the public. 1- ÿThe first element of the strategic triangle is the Public Value, looking to the reason and proposes of this act we will find it is really concerned about the public safety, but on the other hand people did not like such advanced technology that could provide very clear image for the human body naked. This is considered to be violation to the privacy right even though the goal behind is to save people lives. This led to a conflict between two public values. This Act died at the end and was sent back for committee. 2- ÿThe Authorizing Environment. SAFER AIR Act didn?t have a good political support and that is another reason for it to die at an early stage as the Congress sent it back for a committee with a list of comments saying No. 3- ÿThe Operational Capability or Sustainability, from what I have seen from this Act I think it is doable but it will cost a lot of money to come up advanced devices and technology that could do what it should do to scan the passengers and also at the same time ensure high level of privacy and ensure the images taken by these devices are not transferred or accessed by anyone other than the person operating the scanning device. 2- Research and Methods :We will examine the following and you will write up the answer as an Question #5 for this course:The Flint Water System was found to be toxic so the main water source reverted to the Detroit system, not the Flint River.ÿ After the switch, the water needed to be retested.ÿ Read the following and determine:What is the research question?What are the variables?What is the research design?What was the sampling process?How was the data collected?How was the data analyzed?Why or why not was this effective? What did the results show?Research and Methods Outline What is Research??ÿÿÿÿÿ Evidence-based Argumentation: Make predictions based on evidence, as opposed to assumptions?ÿÿÿÿÿ Induction: Learning from the world by observationsWhy??ÿÿÿÿÿ Tools to conduct good research ?ÿÿÿÿÿ Evaluate?ÿÿÿÿÿ Give opinionsScientific research is a strategy for generating reliable knowledge to address problems?ÿÿÿÿÿ In our case, the problems faced by public managers?ÿÿÿÿÿ ?The best decision made by public sector managers are based not on instinct, but on an informed understanding of what?s happening on the ground? (Eller, Gerber, Robinson, 2013)Toulmin Argument in Public Administration?ÿÿÿÿÿ Claim: the statement you seek to evaluate?ÿÿÿÿÿ Specific, falsifiable, relevant?ÿÿÿÿÿ Reason/ evidence:?ÿÿÿÿÿ The reason why we do research?ÿÿÿÿÿ Warrant: ?ÿÿÿÿÿ How the evidence or reason is sufficient enough to provide confidence ÿÿÿ in claimDescriptive Research: Who? What? When? How many??ÿÿÿÿÿ Example: Is the water safe to drink in Flint, Michigan?ÿ Explanatory Research: Why? How??ÿÿÿÿÿ Example: Why does Flint river water have high levels of lead?Causation & Correlation:Correlation does not imply causationCausal inference: X causes Y Correlation: There is a patternUnderstand the initial tasks of research and evaluation3 stages of research:?ÿÿÿÿÿ Formulating Research Question and Hypothesis?ÿÿÿÿÿ Collecting Relevant Data?ÿÿÿÿÿ Analyzing DataWriting a literature reviewPurpose:ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ Substantive introductionÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ Explanation of importanceÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ Context-settingCreating an annotated bibliography: A comprehensive listing of major research articles, reports, books, and other similar sources of information about a specific topicUnderstand the techniques used in obtaining general background information: ?ÿÿÿÿÿ Conducting preliminary interviews with key informants or subject matter experts?ÿÿÿÿÿ Identify and understand basic concepts of types of data gathering techniquesConducting Background Interviews with Subject Matter Experts (SMEs):Persons with specialized knowledge, expertise, and experience within a particular policy domain or program areaThe Value of SME Interviews:Identify core policy issues and challenges Identify core research challengesAssess critical questions Data Gathering-ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ Field Researchÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ Surveysÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ Existing Data Setsÿÿ ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ Creating and Original Data SetResearch Design?ÿÿÿÿÿ Basic challenge?ÿÿÿÿÿ Develop an understanding of exactly how to approach the data collection process when attempting to evaluate or assess some program or policy?ÿÿÿÿÿ Research design?ÿÿÿÿÿ Refers to the general process by which data gathering efforts are structured and defined; that is, what is to be studied and how, what variables are to be included in the study, how they are measured in relation to one another, and how those data are gatheredBasic Concepts for Research Design?ÿÿÿÿÿ Experiment: An activity where a researcher controls or manipulates the conditions under which some sort of subject is examined in order to observe and measure a specific cause-and-effect relationship?ÿÿÿÿÿ Treatment: A variable or condition that the researcher introduces into the experiment in order to see whether it has an effect on the subjects?ÿÿÿÿÿ Control group: Those subjects in the experiment that do not receive the treatmentEthics and Research Design?ÿÿÿÿÿ Issues of potential bias and conflicts of interest in the conduct of a research or evaluation study is of paramount concern?ÿÿÿÿÿ Issues of subject selection and subject inclusionEthics and the Research ProcessIt is critical to understand the importance of protecting the rights of other persons in any project that involves gathering any type of data a from other persons.ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ Example: Tuskegee Syphilis Study (withholding treatment from subjects)Protections:?ÿÿÿÿÿ Institutional Review Boards (IRB) for University Research?ÿÿÿÿÿ Federal Guidelines for biomedical researchMeasurement:Understanding the Basics of Measurement?ÿÿÿÿÿ Operationalization- Translating a concept of interest into a form that can be measured?ÿÿÿÿÿ Understanding what to study and what to measureVariablesQualitative vs. Quantitative Methods?ÿÿÿÿÿ Qualitative- goal is to examine, understand, and describe a phenomenon?ÿÿÿÿÿ There are non-numerical differences between categories (usually designated by words or labels -i.e. Gender) Values consist of numbers, and differences between values can be expressed in numbers?ÿÿÿÿÿ Quantitative- goal is to analyze and represent the relationshipÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ mathematically through statistical analysis?ÿÿÿÿÿ Values consist of numbers, and differences between values can be expressed in numbersDependent vs. Independent variables ?ÿÿÿÿÿ Dependent- what is being tested and observed ?ÿÿÿÿÿ Independent- not change by other variables, stand-aloneLevels of Measurement?ÿÿÿÿÿ Nominal Variables: Names/ Labels?ÿÿÿÿÿ Race/ethnicity, gender, colors?ÿÿÿÿÿ Ordinal Variables: Order?ÿÿÿÿÿ Agree / disagree scales, ranked orders, variables with discrete categoriesÿ ?ÿÿÿÿÿ Interval Variables/ Ratio Variables (an absolute zero)?ÿÿÿÿÿ Temperature, age, income, any continuous variable Sampling Methods?ÿÿÿÿÿ Random Sampling – every person in known population gets and even chance of being selected?ÿÿÿÿÿ Systematic Sampling – every Nth unit or element from the sample frame list gets selected?ÿÿÿÿÿ Stratified Sampling – actual representation of the population- researcher divides a heterogenous population into several strate and then takes a sample from each stratum, usually with the size of the sample for each strata being proportional to the size of the strata in the overall population?ÿÿÿÿÿ Snowball Sampling – non-probability sampling where researcher relies on referral from initial subjects to identify other population membersAssessing Measurement Validity and Reliability Validity assessment approach ?ÿÿÿÿÿ Face validity – when test seems to be effective in terms of stated aim?ÿÿÿÿÿ Content validity – how well a test measures the behavior for which it is intended. Reliability assessment approach ?ÿÿÿÿÿ Test—retest – A measure of consistency for testIssues of Validity and Inference:Internal Validity:Understanding the nature of internal validity, and threats to it, are critical to drawing causal inferences?ÿÿÿÿÿ Did you actually measure (accurately and validly) the concepts and variables you intended to? ?ÿÿÿÿÿ Did you account for, or rule out, competing explanations? ?ÿÿÿÿÿ Threats to internal Validity?ÿÿÿÿÿ Threat of history?ÿÿÿÿÿ Threat of maturation?ÿÿÿÿÿ Threat of testing?ÿÿÿÿÿ Threat of instrumentation?ÿÿÿÿÿ Threat of regression to the mean?ÿÿÿÿÿ Threat of selection bias?ÿÿÿÿÿ Threat of mortalityExternal validity: Can the results be generalized to other settings beyond the specific sample gathered for the purposes of conducting a given study??ÿÿÿÿÿ Threats to external validity: ?ÿÿÿÿÿ Involve interaction of the nature of the study (and its treatment) with specific aspects of conducting an experiment (i.e., an interaction between treatment and testing)Type of Experiment True Experiment?ÿÿÿÿÿ Subjects are randomly assigned to treatment conditions?ÿÿÿÿÿ All phenomenon is completely controlled?ÿÿÿÿÿ Excellent for showing cause and effect relationships?ÿÿÿÿÿ High on internal validityQuasi-Experiment ?ÿÿÿÿÿ Natural experiments?ÿÿÿÿÿ Subjects are already in the treatment level, experimenter has no controlSimilarities?ÿÿÿÿÿ Study participants are subjected to some type of treatment or condition?ÿÿÿÿÿ Some outcome of interest is measured?ÿÿÿÿÿ The researcher test whether differences in this outcome are related to the treatmentResearch Methods – ÿQuantitative: measured in numbersQualitative: measured as a category or nonnumeric unit. – ÿReliability: arriving at the same results ? or at least very similar results ? every time I re-conduct the studyValidity: likely to happen and have not just appeared by chance – ÿLikert scale measure: survey question that seek answers on a point scale – ÿDependent variable: depends on the influence of the independent variable Independent variable: responsible for causing the changes in the outcome Control variable: variables that are not under study but might affect the dependent variable – ÿClassis Research Design has pretest and posttest control groups, simple, straight forward, groups are randomly selected. – ÿSampling designs: 1 Simple Random Sampling ? randomly chosen and each member has exactly an equal probability of being selected for the sample. 2 Cluster Sampling ? the population is divided into groups, then a random sample of the clusters in selected. – ÿInductive Approach: no hypothesis – ÿDeductive Approach: hypothesis needs to be proves What went wrong in Flint? Blood Lead Levels in Children Associated with the Flint Drinking Water Crisis helped uncover a public health crisis in Flint, but learned there are costs to doing good science Forward After Flint and Formal Rulemaking + Bureaucracy article — Bureaucrcy over Flint Drinking Water Act and Water Safely LawOrigins of the EPA Act of the EPA Public Value Record Safe Drinking Water Act assessment of Safe Drinking Water Act Post – Anti-Flint about Flint from Virginia Techhttp://flintwaterstudy.orgPlumbing Research Water Research allows lawsuit to stand Residents Must Begin Paying for Water



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